(b Stettin, 1846; d NY, 1919).
Ger.‐Amer. impresario and businessman. Settled in NY 1863, making fortune from inventions such as cigar‐making machine. From 1890 built and managed various ths. In 1906 built Manhattan Opera House, NY, engaging superb singers and producing adventurous repertory, incl. first NY perfs. of Louise, Pelléas et Mélisande, and Elektra. In 1908 built Philadelphia Opera House, run in assoc. with his NY co. The Met in 1910 bought his interests and stipulated he should not produce opera in NY, Boston, Philadelphia, or Chicago for 10 years. So in London he built London Opera House (Stoll, Kingsway), opening in 1911 but failing after 2 seasons. Built Lexington Opera House, NY, in 1913, but the Met legally restrained him from producing opera there.