Militant Pakistan-based organization active in Indian-held Kashmir. Originated as a part of the Afghan Islamic resistance against the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan in the 1980s. Founded as Harakat ul-Ansar in October 1993 by Mawlana Fazlur Rahman Khalil, a Deobandi scholar and activist. Declared a terrorist organization by the U.S. State Department after it was blamed for the assassination of four Western tourists in Kashmir. Reorganized under the name Harakat ul-Mujahidin in 1997, with its headquarters in Muzaffarabad, Pakistani (Azad) Kashmir. Believes in pan-Islamic ideology of “one flag, one government, and one state” for the entire Muslim world. Banned by Pakistan's government in December 2001 as part of its efforts to suppress all extremist and militant organizations.