Somali Sufi and intellectual leader who guided his country's resistance to European and Ethiopian occupation from 1899 to 1920. By mediating clan disputes and preaching anticolonialism, he won the support of most Somalis and worked to preserve Islamic values and found a theocratic Muslim state. Declared a holy war against foreigners in 1899 and inflicted serious losses on foreign armies until British aircraft destroyed his fortress in 1920. Though many Somalis see him as a national hero, he convinced few to adhere to his rigid vision of Islam.
Subjects: Islam — World History.