(b Wiener Neustadt, 1883; d Vienna, 1959).
Austrian composer. Met Schoenberg 1919. In 1919, independently of Schoenberg, developed 12‐note system and wrote his first 12‐note piece, Nomos. Method based on 44 combinations (tropes) of 12 notes of the octave, each subdivided into 6‐note groups. Did not get on well with Schoenberg because of his insistence that he first ‘discovered’ 12‐note composition, even to proclaiming it on his stationery. Works incl. operas Die schwarze Spinne (1932, f.p. Vienna 1966) and Salambo (1930, f.p. Vienna 1983); oratorio Wandlungen; pf. conc.; vn. conc.; Hölderlin songs; 3 str. qts. From 1939 all his works bore the title Zwölftonspiel (12‐note piece).