Another name for the Chicken game, especially in biological literature, where it was rediscovered and interpreted as follows. The Hawk strategy involves escalated fighting until the individual adopting it is forced to withdraw or its opponent gives way; the Dove strategy involves conventional fighting—the individual adopting it retreats before getting injured if its opponent escalates. The highest payoff, in terms of Darwinian fitness, goes to the Hawk strategy pitted against Dove, the second-highest payoff to Dove against Dove, the third-highest to Dove against Hawk, and the lowest to Hawk against Hawk. The English biologist John Maynard Smith (1920–2004) and the US physicist and chemist George R. Price (1922–75) first analysed this game in 1973 and showed that the evolutionarily stable strategy is a mixture of Hawk and Dove.
Subjects: Psychology — Zoology and Animal Sciences.