A form of earnings per share information provided by the Chartered Financial Analyst Society (formerly the Institute of Investment Management and Research). The figure includes all the trading profits and losses for the year, including interest and profits and losses from operations discontinued or acquired at any point during the year. Excluded from the figure are profits or losses from the sale or termination of a discontinued operation, from the sale of fixed assets or businesses, or from any permanent diminution in their value or write off. Abnormal trading items should be included in the figure but prominently displayed in a note if they are significant. Many companies disclose the headline earnings per share in addition to those required by Financial Reporting Standard 22 or International Accounting Standard 33, and the Financial Times uses the method for calculating the price–earnings ratio.