Differences in health-related variables (e.g. life expectancy, all-age all-cause mortality, breast cancer incidence) between population groups (often defined by socio-economic group, sex, age, ethnic group, place of birth, place of residence, and income). Health inequalities between groups arise as a result of differences in constitutional factors (e.g. age, sex, ethnic group), educational attainment, health-related behaviour (e.g. smoking, diet) and access to services. Typically, socio-economic deprivation is associated with poorer health outcomes. Recent government policy has sought to reduce gaps in health outcomes between population groups, particularly those related to socio-economic group and income.
Subjects: Medicine and Health.