Archaic Stage hunter‐gather communities living in the eastern woodlands of North America in the period c.4000–3000 bc. Villages housing up to 150 people have been found, the houses having sunken earth floors and post and wattle construction walls on two sides, the ends being covered with skins or mats. Occupants made extensive use of shallow lakes and slow‐moving water for fishing. They also used acorns, hickory, walnuts, pecans, and hazelnuts. Grass seeds were also exploited and processed in stone mortars. The hunters also took deer, small mammals, and waterfowl such as ducks and geese. A cemetery is known at Koster, Illinois, in which the bodies had been smothered in red ochre.