Henderson was born in Beckenham, Kent, on 20 October 1890, the son of John Henderson, a Glasgow banker. He died in Oxford on 22 February 1952. Henderson was educated at Aberdeen Grammar School, Rugby School and Emmanuel College, Cambridge, where he studied mathematics and then economics just prior to World War I taking first-class honours in the economics tripos in 1912. During this period of his life Henderson became increasingly interested in Liberal Party politics, an interest that would eventually lead to his becoming secretary and then (1912) president of the Cambridge Union. After being declared unfit for military service in the First World War, Henderson joined the Cotton Control Board in 1917 as secretary. In 1919 he became a teaching fellow at Clare College, Cambridge, where he found intellectual company with John Maynard keynes, then a fellow of King's College, Cambridge.
From The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists in Oxford Reference.