A hormone peptide (HAMP, liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide, LEAP1) produced in the liver that is essential to the negative regulation of iron. It regulates duodenal iron absorption and iron trafficking in the reticuloendothelial system by inhibiting the cellular efflux of iron by binding to and inducing the degradation of ferroportin, the sole iron exporter in iron-transporting cells. The active C-terminal 25 aa peptide is cleaved from a 84 aa precursor and contains a unique 17-aa stretch with eight cysteines forming four disulphide bridges. HAMP has antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive bacteria, and inhibits the growth of certain yeast and Gram-negative species with activity similar to β-*defensin.
Subjects: Medicine and Health.