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Migration or withdrawal. Typically refers to the migration of Muhammad and his Companions from Mecca to Medina in 622 C.E., the first year in the Islamic calendar. Symbolizes the willingness to suffer for faith and the refusal to lose hope in the face of persecution. Can be undertaken individually or collectively in response to a threat to survival. In modern times, has been used to oppose colonial rule, legitimize Muslim migrations, settle Bedouin tribes, and consolidate power. Most recently, has referred to a form of withdrawal from the politics of secularism, capitalism, socialism, and modernization/Westernization. For Sufis, refers to the process of self-purification during the inner spiritual journey of returning to God.

Subjects: Islam.

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