Wisdom. Refers to both revealed wisdom (the Quran identifies itself as a form of wisdom) and the sciences in general. Some thinkers, such as Ibn Sina, have classified major branches of knowledge as subdivisions of hikmah, including medicine and medical ethics. A religio-philosophical school developed by Shihab al-Din Yahya Suhrawardi (d. 1191) is known as Hikmat al-Ishraq or Illuminationism. The plural, hikam, refers to the aphorisms or “wisdom sayings” attributed to several important medieval Sufis, notably the Egyptian Ibn Ata Allah (d. 1309).