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Tyrant (see tyranny) of Athens 527–510 bc, elder son and successor of Pisistratus, in close association with his brother Hipparchus 1. His rule was at first mild. Leading aristocrats held the archonship (see archontes), Cleisthenes 2 in 525/4, Miltiades in 524/3; Hipparchus patronized the arts. The famous Attic owl coinage probably begins in his reign (see coinage, greek), as does work on the temple of Olympian Zeus (Olympieum), the largest in contemporary Greece; extensive work on the temple of Athena on the Acropolis (c.520); and the altar of the Twelve Gods in the Agora. His rule became harsher after Hipparchus' assassination. The Alcmaeonids, based at Leipsydrion, in the foothills of Mt. Parnes, tried in vain to oust him; the Spartans under Cleomenes I, spurred on by Delphi and Cleisthenes, invaded Attica and finally succeeded. He and his family escaped to Sigeum and later to Darius I 's court. He was with the Persian forces at the battle of Marathon.

Subjects: Classical Studies.

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