The post-translational modification of histones by histone acetyl transferases (HATs; EC 2.3.1.-) which add acetyl groups to N-terminal lysine residues. Acetylation reduces the binding affinity between histones and DNA, facilitating transcription by making it easier for RNA polymerase and transcription factors to access the promoter region. Acetylation of histone H4 is considered to be important in replication-dependent nucleosome assembly. Deacetylation (by histone deacetylases (HDACs) has the opposite effect.
Subjects: Medicine and Health.