Also known as the Islamic Call Party. Formed 1958–59 in Iraq by Shii ulama to work for social justice and foundation of Islamic state. Most prominent Shii activist group by late 1970s. Inspired by Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr, who criticized both capitalism and Communism in favor of an Islamic alternative. Used tawhid as the basis for modern politics, economics, and philosophy. Made significant intellectual and conceptual contributions to the contemporary Islamic revival. Outlawed and repressed by Saddam Hussein in 1980 due to suspected Iranian influence and its opposition to the government; its members were deported, tortured, imprisoned, and or executed. Al-Sadr was executed in 1980.