Name given to what some believe to be a previously unrecognized hominin species, perhaps evolved from Homo erectus, represented by remains found during excavations by R. P. Soejono and Mike Morwood in the Liang Bua Cave on the island of Flores in Indonesia. The skeleton, which includes a well‐preserved skull, belonged to a person no more than 1 m tall and with a brain size of about 380 ml (about the same as a modern chimpanzee). Associated with the remains in a layer dated to before 18 000 bc were stone tools and part of an extinct pygmy elephant known as a stegodon. If the remains do indeed represent a new species with links back to local Homo erectus populations, then its long survival on Flores has to be explained. Some scholars believe the excavated remains are those of a microcephalic Homo sapiens.