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(antipope 28 Oct. 1061–31 May 1064: d. 1071/2)

On Nicholas II's death in July 1061Peter Cadalus, born 1009/10 of wealthy German stock near Verona, by 1041 comptroller of the see of Verona, bishop of Parma by May 1046, was elected pope, on the nomination of Empress Agnes as regent for the youthful Henry IV (1056–1106), by a miscellaneous assembly at Basle; he took the style Honorius II. The Roman nobility, set on seizing the papacy for themselves, had sent an embassy to the German court bearing the insignia of the patrician of the Romans to request Henry, in virtue of that office, to name a new pope; there had also arrived, led by Guibert, the royal chancellor, a delegation of Lombard bishops hostile to the reform movement. Because of his prominence, his close relations with the royal house, and his wealth, Cadalus was an obvious choice; he was also, although founder in 1046 of the monastery of S. Giorgio at Verona, an opponent of reform, in particular of the revolutionary reform movement known as the Pataria.

One month earlier (30 Sept.) the reform party at Rome had elected Bishop Anselm of Lucca as Pope Alexander II. In Apr. 1062, after defeating his rival's troops, Honorius installed himself in Rome, but failed to exploit his success. In May Duke Godfrey of Lorraine, arriving with superior forces, persuaded both popes to withdraw to their dioceses until the German court decided on their claims. This meant in effect that the decision lay with Anno, the reform-minded archbishop of Cologne (1056–78), who had now replaced Agnes as regent and who personally favoured Alexander. After investigations, first at Augsburg in Oct. 1062 and then at Rome at the end of the year, judgement was given in Alexander's favour. But Honorius was far from finished. Anathematized by Alexander (20 Apr. 1062), he anathematized him in turn from Parma, and in May 1063 attacked Rome, seizing Castel Sant'Angelo and holding it for several months. As the schism dragged on and Alexander's title continued to be disputed, Anno was persuaded by the reformer Peter Damian (1007–72) to convene a synod of German and Italian bishops at Mantua in May 1064 to which both popes were invited. Honorius refused to attend since his request to preside was not granted, but Alexander attended, presided, and, after disclaiming simony on oath, was definitively acknowledged as pope. Honorius was then formally anathematized. He now returned to Parma, remaining its acknowledged bishop until his death towards the end of 1071 or the beginning of 1072. He never abandoned his claims to the papacy, and at least twice, in 1065 and 1068, had serious grounds for hoping that the attitude of the German court would again alter in his favour.

Further Reading

JW i. 530, 566–94LP ii. 281, 284, 336 f., 358–60Watterich i. 235–90DHGE xi. 53–99 (F. Baix: complete bibliography to 1949)DBI ii. 176–82 (C. Violante: on Alexander II)Z1: 148–58Histoire v. 62–4 (A. Paravicini Bagliani)Seppelt iii. 51–6F. Herberhold, ‘Die Angriffe des Cadalus von Parma…auf Rom in den Jahren 1062 und 1063’, StGreg2 (Rome, 1947), 477–503Partner 121–2


Subjects: Christianity.

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