Barley, a cereal grain domesticated about 10,000 years ago in the fertile crescent (q.v.). It is the fourth most important cereal crop (coming after wheat, maize, and rice). Its haploid chromosome number is 7, and its genome size is 4.8 gigabase pairs. Malted barley is used in the brewing industry, and food-grade malts are components in the formulation of baked goods and breakfast cereals. See Classification, Plantae, Tracheophyta, Angiospermae, Monocotolyledoneae, Graminales.
Subjects: Genetics and Genomics.