Polish cardinal. In 1551 he became Bp. of Ermland (in Polish Warmia), where one of his main tasks was to combat Protestantism. In his chief work, the Confessio Catholicae Fidei Christiana (1552–3), he tried to prove that Catholicism and Christianity were identical. In 1560 Pius IV appointed him nuncio to the Emp. Ferdinand I; in this capacity he prepared the reopening of the Council of Trent. In 1561 he was created cardinal and appointed Papal legate at Trent, where he played a leading part in the doctrinal discussions.
Subjects: Christianity — Early Modern History (1500 to 1700).