(b Offenbach‐am‐Main, 1909; d Munich, 2003).
Austrian bass‐baritone. Began as org. and choirmaster; turned to singing and made début in Passau 1929 (Messiah). Prof. début Munich 1930 (bar. soloist in Hindemith's oratorio Lehrstück, cond. Scherchen). Opera début Troppau 1930 (Wolfram in Tannhäuser). Sang in Prague 1932–4 and Hamburg 1934–45. Member of Bavarian State Opera, Munich, 1937–72, Vienna Opera 1939–70. Débuts: London (BBC recital) 1947; CG 1947; NY Met 1950; Bayreuth Fest. 1952; Salzburg Fest. 1942. Created Commandant in Friedenstag (1938) and Olivier in Capriccio (1942). Sang Jupiter in unofficial Salzburg f.p. of Die Liebe der Danae, 1944. Prod. Ring at CG 1962–4. Outstanding Wotan in Ring; his last Wotan in Paris, 1972. Vienna farewell 1978. Sang Schigolch in Lulu in S. Francisco 1989 and Paris 1991. Has appeared often as speaker in Schoenberg's Gurrelieder. One of greatest singers of his generation.