3rd duke of Norfolk, Thomas Howard

(1473—1554) magnate and soldier

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battle of Flodden

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Norfolk's first wife was a daughter of Edward IV; he was uncle to both Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard. After fighting under his father at Flodden, he was created earl of Surrey when his father was made duke of Norfolk. From 1513 to 1525 he served as lord high admiral, was lord‐lieutenant of Ireland 1520–2 and lord high treasurer 1522–47. He helped to bring down Wolsey and in 1534 presided over the trial of his niece Anne Boleyn. In 1537 he put down the rising of the Pilgrimage of Grace with severity. In 1540 he succeeded in ousting Thomas Cromwell. The imprudence of his son Lord Surrey, in sporting the royal arms, brought a conviction for treason in 1546 and Norfolk escaped execution only because Henry VIII died. Throughout Edward VI's reign, Norfolk remained in the Tower but, as a catholic, was released by Mary, restored to his honours, and served against Wyatt's rebellion in January 1554.

Subjects: British History.

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