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Ch'an monk and modern revitalizer of Chinese Buddhism. Hsu-yün (‘empty cloud’) was known for his rigorous practice, his warm preaching, his encounters with the Bodhisattva Mañjuśrī while on pilgrimage.his austere and simple lifestyle, his uncompromising adherence to Buddhist morality, and his remarkable longevity. Many Buddhists in China rank him as one of the ‘four great reformers’ of the modern period, along with the modernizer T'ai-hsü (1890–1947), the Vinaya master Hung-yi (1880–1942), and the Pure Land revitalizer Yin-kuang (1861–1940).

Subjects: Buddhism.

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