Government, commonly distinguished from dawlah (state). Understood as the group of individuals who exercise the authority of the state; the term was adopted as Muslims became increasingly interested in European forms of government. Classically, hukumah referred to the dispensation of justice. Government itself was narrowly referred to as wilayah, sultan, or imarah. The state did not exist as an institution with legal identity; government was legitimate because God and divine law authorized it. In the modern period, the word connotes administration, political authority, and rule. Ali Abd al-Raziq (d. 1966) argued that Islam mandates no particular form of government. Muhammad Rashid Rida (d. 1935) stated that the caliphate was a spiritual institution, not a legal one. Abu al-Ala Mawdudi (d. 1979) held there is no essential difference between state, society, and government: all are part of the larger Islamic order anchored in shariah. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (d. 1989) argued for the establishment of political institutions underpinned by Islamic law and run by legal scholars.