The mt chromosome is a circular DNA molecule that contains 16,560 bp. The genome is extremely compact. Coding sequences make up 93% of the total genome, and all genes lack introns. There are 37 genes; 28 are encoded by the heavy strand and 9 by the light. There are 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 13 genes that encode proteins, which function as subunits in enzymes that synthesize ATP. The original DNA sequence published in 1981 is referred to as the Cambridge reference sequence. It contains errors that were corrected in 1999. After single base pair corrections were made at 10 sites, the revised Cambridge reference sequence corresponds to European haplogroup H. See Chronology, 1979, Barrell, Banker, and Drouin; 1981, Andrews et al.; ATP synthase, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), mitochondrial syndromes, mitochondrion, mtDNA lineages.
Subjects: Genetics and Genomics.