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An Italian penitential movement. Its adherents adopted a simple life-style, refused to take oaths, and insisted on preaching without authorization; in 1184 they were condemned for their disobedience to the hierarchy. Innocent III in 1201 reorganized them in the form of three orders, governed by a single general chapter: the first order consisted of double monasteries of canons and nuns, the second of houses of celibate lay men and women, the third of married people living at home. The first two were assimilated to the mendicant orders; the third disappeared in the 14th century.

Subjects: Christianity.

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