Chinese reform campaign. Inspired by Kang Youwei, and supported by Liang Qichao (1873–1921), it attempted to reform the Qing state. Kang utilized official disenchantment with the measures of the Self-Strengthening Movement and concern at renewed foreign intrusions in the wake of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894–95 to have extensive reforms, based on Western thinking, adopted by Emperor Guangxu. These included a constitutional monarchy and modernization of the civil service. After a period of 103 days the reform programme was destroyed by a conservative backlash, the empress dowager Cixi launching a palace coup in which the emperor was imprisoned, the reforms rescinded, and the reformers themselves exiled, dismissed, or put to death. Many of these reforms were finally implemented between the Russo–Japanese War of 1904–05 and the Revolution of 1911.
Subjects: World History.