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Populist Sufi order founded by Fadlallah Astarabadi in fourteenth-century Iran. Astarabadi claimed direct revelation from God and Hidden Imam status. The order preached that only manual work could produce legitimate income and claimed that salvation was attainable through secret knowledge of the numerical values of the alphabet. It spread into Anatolia and Bulgaria among Muslims and Christians. Some of its ideas were perpetuated by the Bektashi order.

Subjects: Islam.

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