In psychoanalysis, one of three types of hysteria that were distinguished in 1895 by the Austrian physician Josef Breuer (1842–1925) and Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) in Studies on Hysteria (Standard Edition, II), supposedly originating in a state similar to a hypnotic state. However, Freud wrote: ‘Strangely enough, I have never in my own experience met with a genuine hypnoid hysteria. Any that I took in hand has turned into a defence hysteria’ (p. 286). After 1895 Freud came to believe that all hysteria is defence hysteria, and he abandoned the tripartite distinction. See also hypnoid state. Compare defence hysteria, retention hysteria.