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The commonly abbreviated form of ibidem (Latin, ‘in the same place’), a term widely used in scholarly footnotes and endnotes when these provide bibliographical references for quotations or facts cited. In these contexts, ‘ibid.’ means ‘in the same work already mentioned’, usually referring back to the immediately preceding note or to a previous reference to a work by a specified author, and followed by the relevant page number from that work. It does not automatically refer precisely to the same page as before: for this purpose, the customary Latin abbreviation is loc. cit.

Subjects: Literature.

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