Sudanese militant revivalist and reformer. Proclaimed himself Mahdi (divinely appointed guide) in 1881. Led a jihad against the Egyptians and their European allies in the 1880s. Preached against corruption of Islam in Sudan and adoption of foreign (Turko-Egyptian, European, and local non-Islamic) practices. Established an Islamic state over most of Sudan patterned on the original seventh-century political entity founded by Muhammad. Interpreted his victories as a sign of God's favor. Declared shariah the only valid law. After his death, the state he created lasted until Sudan was conquered by Anglo-Egyptian forces in 1898–99.