Hanbali theologian and jurist. Born near Jerusalem; educated in Quranic and hadith studies at the al-Salahi madrasa in Damascus. Continued his studies in Baghdad, becoming a student of the mystic Abd al-Qadir al-Jili. Left treatises in which he censures human judgment (ijtihad) and speculation in matters of faith, especially the Mutazili method of allegorical interpretation (tawil) of the Quran, which removed any human personification of Allah from it (tajsim). In strict Hanbali tradition, Ibn Qudama advocated the unconditional acceptance of scriptural depictions of the divine attributes.