Malaysian political and religious activist. Formed an alliance with Mahathir Mohamed in 1969, advocating Malay educational and economic rights. Established Malaysian Islamic Youth Movement (ABIM) in 1972, making him the most influential young leader of Malaysia. Calls for the Islamization of Malaysian life and excellence in education. Stresses social justice, including safeguards for the rights of the non-Muslim population. Detained 1974–76 following demonstrations against poverty in Baling. Served as leader of Malaysian Youth Council, representative of the World Assembly of Muslim Youth (WAMY) for Southeast Asia, cofounder of International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT) in Herndon, Virginia, and chancellor of International Islamic University at Kuala Lumpur between 1983 and 1988. Joined the ruling United Malays National Organization (UMNO) in 1983. Served as deputy party leader, acting prime minister, deputy prime minister, agricultural minister, education minister, minister of finance, and minister of youth, culture, and sports. In 1998 was removed from power and tried for sedition and corruption.