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All of us agree with Joseph Butler that everything is what it is and not another thing. The difficulty is to know when we have one thing and not two. A rule for telling this is a principle of individuation, or a criterion of identity for things of the kind in question. In logic, identity may be introduced as a primitive relational expression, or defined via the identity of indiscernibles. See also personal identity.

Subjects: Arts and Humanities.

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