1. Implicit values and assumptions embedded within texts, discourse, or social practices, e.g. loaded language. For those inclined towards realism, ideology involves a distortion of an objective reality. However, following Bakhtin and Voloshinov in the 1930s, many contemporary theorists argue that there are no ideologically neutral sign systems: signs function to persuade as well as to refer.
2. Certain tendencies beyond mere functionality which are favoured by the affordances of a particular technology. Neil Postman argues that every medium involves an ideological bias, having several aspects: intellectual and emotional bias, political bias, sensory bias, social bias, and content bias (see bias).