Important early ruling family in North Africa. Its eighth-century founder, Mulay Idris ibn Abdullah, sought refuge in present-day Morocco after being forced into exile and persecuted for anti-Abbasid activities. He united the Berber tribes of the area by claiming descent from Muhammad, leading to the emergence of the first independent Islamic dynasty in Morocco. His son, Idris II, stressed the Islamic-Arab character of Morocco, organized the first central government, and undertook construction of the Qarawiyin and Andalus mosques and Qarawiyin University, making Fez an important religious and cultural center. The last head of the dynasty was killed in 985. Its legacy was a foundation for independent Moroccan monarchic rule.