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The principle that internationally illegal acts or omissions contributing to the damage to foreign property, and caused in some way by organs of the state apparatus, are attributable to the state and therefore incur that state's responsibility. Thus, there must have been state participation in the act before there can be state responsibility for it. International law treats as irrelevant the question whether, under municipal law, the officials of the state acted beyond their authority, provided they used state organs in performance of the act. Hence, the state has been held liable for the acts of soldiers who joined rioters instead of suppressing them (Thomas H Youmans (US) v United Mexican States (1924) 4 RIAA 10).

Subjects: Law.

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