1. Small media production, marketing, or distribution companies not affiliated with a ‘major’ commercial company. This includes those which may seek public funding, such as in the ‘independent film sector’.
2. Media companies defining their productions in opposition to the values of mainstream entertainment: see also alternative media.
3. Commercial media companies which are independent of state ownership and funding: for example, in the UK, ITV (Independent Television)—a terrestrial broadcast channel operated regionally on a franchise basis.