Indian Knoll, Kentucky, USA

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An extensive Archaic Stage shell midden, living floors, and cemetery dating to c.2500–2000 bc. As a whole the site covers about 1 ha with some of the shell middens over 1.5 m high. Excavations by William Webb during the Great Depression revealed a cemetery of over 1100 burials representing all age groups, from newborn infants to elderly adults. Grave goods associated with some internments suggest social ranking, perhaps through differentiated kinship groups. Grave goods associated with males included axes and groundhog incisors for woodworking, fish‐hooks, antler flint‐retouchers, awls, and items which may have been from medicine bags. Among items found exclusively in female graves were nutcracking stones, bone beads, pestles, and stone gravers. About 4 per cent of the graves contained objects that had come from distant sources: copper ornaments and marine shell ornaments.

W. S. Webb, 1946, Indian Knoll site, Oh 2, Ohio County, Kentucky. University of Kentucky Reports in Archaeology and Anthropology, 4(3), 115–365

Subjects: Archaeology.

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