Indian National Satellite System

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A series of Indian-owned geostationary satellites for simultaneous domestic communications and Earth observation. The four first-generation INSAT vehicles were all built in the USA and launched by NASA or the European Space Agency: INSAT-1A was launched in 1982, INSAT-1B in 1983, INSAT-1C in 1988, and INSAT-1D in 1990. The five second-generation vehicles were built in India and launched there: INSAT-2A was launched in 1992, INSAT-2B in 1993, INSAT-2C in 1995, INSAT-2D in 1997, and INSAT-2E in 1999. The third generation began with INSAT-3B in 2000, followed by INSAT-3C in 2002, and INSAT-3A and INSAT-3E in 2003. The satellites have carried a very high-resolution radiometer (VHRR) to observe cloud coverage and cyclone formation, and a high-resolution charge-coupled device (CCD) camera to study cyclones, storms, and climate changes.

Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics.

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