Is any disease or bodily damage resulting from work. Injuries can arise from numerous circumstances, but common causes of injuries include manual handling of loads, poor use or technical failure of vehicles or other machinery, exposure to hazardous substances (see COSHH), and clothing, jewellery, or hair becoming entangled in machinery. Poorly designed work stations and repetitive actions such as keyboard use can also cause serious injuries (see repetitive strain injury). There are many forms of industrial disease, with over seventy ‘prescribed diseases’ officially identified. These include ‘fossy jaw’, one of the earliest identified industrial diseases, caused by exposure to white phosphorous in the match industry, asbestosis and the diseases suffered by miners, such as silicosis and pneumoconiosis. Employees can pursue a personal injury claim against their employer if they believe their industrial injury stemmed from their employer's negligence. It is also possible to claim Industrial Injuries Disabled Benefit from the state. Research into industrial injuries has identified the kinds of workplace in which injury is likely to occur, with a notable and persistent finding being the reduced risk of injury in unionized workplaces. Economists have also examined how systems of management adapt to hazards at work and have researched compensating differentials; that is, the prevalence of higher rates of pay in dangerous occupations. [See also accidents at work, incapacity benefit, noise at work, and vibration.]
Subjects: Human Resource Management — Law.