Architecture and constructional techniques dependent on prefabrication. Mass-produced building components were available from C18, while the iron-foundries made many and varied artefacts (e.g. balcony-fronts, balusters, crests, railings, etc.). Cast-iron Greek Doric columns (far cheaper than stone and easy to make because repetitive) were used by Nash at Carlton House Terrace, London (1827–33), Barry employed mass-produced metal window-frames and cast-iron roof-panels at the Palace of Westminster (1839–60), and Paxton's Crystal Palace, London (1851), was almost entirely built of prefabricated parts assembled within a modular system. Curtain-walling designs, panel systems, precast concrete, and many other aspects of industrialized building have speeded C20 building processes. Charles Eames, E. D. Ehrenkrantz, Buckminster Fuller, Gropius, Nervi, Perret, Prouvé, and Wachsmann were in the forefront of developments in C20 industrialized building. In England, Aslin and CLASP evolved systems for building, while Arup, Foster, Grimshaw, Hopkins, Rogers, and others have raised industrialized building techniques to some degree of refinement.
G. Herbert (1978, 1984);Hix (1996);Klotz (ed.) (1986);Pawley (1990);Pevsner (1976);Russell (1981)