The number of deaths in the first year of life per 1 000 children born. Poor sanitation is a major factor: the ‘urban penalty’/‘urban graveyard effect’ (Mercier and Boone (2002) Hist. Geog. 28, 4). Gyimah (2006) Ethnic. & Health 11, 2 finds that mortality is more of a reflection of socio-economic inequalities than ethnic-specific socio-cultural practices, but notes that wider birth spacing and longer breastfeeding also reduce infant mortality. T. Boley (1999) sees infant mortality as an index of social tension and cultural values.
Subjects: Medicine and Health.