After a sharp or flat the natural sign ♮ restores the note to its normal pitch.
After a double sharp or double flat the sign ♯ or ♭ (or ♮♯ or ♮♭) changes the pitch of the note to that of a single sharp or flat.
After a double sharp or double flat the sign ♮ (rarely given ♮♮) restores the note to its normal pitch.
Any of these various signs is understood to affect not only the note before which it immediately occurs, but also, unless contradicted, any other notes on that same line or space of the staff throughout the measure (bar), and if the last note of the measure is thus inflected and is tied to the same note at the opening of the next measure, that latter also is understood to be included in the inflection.
Additions are made to the names of the notes as shown below.
Because of several irregularities in the Ger. names it has been thought best to set these out in full. Notice particularly the names marked *.
Double Sharp ×
Raising the note a half-step or semitone
Raising the note a full-step or tone
Double Flate ♭♭
lowering the note a half-step or semitone
lowering the note a full-step or tone