Pope from 402. He made more substantial claims for the Papacy than any of his predecessors, insisting that major causes of dispute should be brought for judgement to Rome. In the controversy with Celestius, Pelagius, and their supporters, he endorsed the doctrines propounded by the African Councils. His famous letter to Decentius, Bp. of Eugubium, is important for the history of the Canon of the Mass; it also speaks of Confirmation as reserved for bishops and mentions the rites of Unction and Penance. Feast day, 28 July (dropped in 1969).