Pope from 1676. He struggled against the absolutism of Louis XIV in Church affairs, disapproving of the revocation in 1685 of the Edict of Nantes; he also opposed Gallicanism. He similarly disapproved of James II's measures to restore RCism in England. He condemned 65 Laxist propositions in 1679 and 68 Quietist propositions in 1687. Feast day, 12 Aug.