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  • Education
  • Sports and Exercise Medicine


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Describes learning which is undertaken not for its own sake but for some other purpose. For example, all vocational education is instrumental in that its purpose is to prepare the learner for a specific line of work and to improve their chances of employment. The increasing emphasis on skills for work in the 14–19 curriculum indicates a general trend towards the instrumental, as opposed to developmental or liberal, model of education, as does the concept of employer‐led education and training.

Subjects: Education — Sports and Exercise Medicine.

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