Multisite docking proteins (IRS-1, 1242 aa; IRS-2, 1338; IRS-4, 1257 aa) that act as an interface between signalling proteins with src homology-2 domains (SH2 proteins) such as p85 of PI-3-kinase, Grb-2, and PTP-2, and the receptors for insulin, IGF2, growth hormone, several interleukins (IL-4, IL-9, IL-13), and other cytokines. They are tyrosine-phosphorylated following ligand binding to the receptor. Association with *14-3-3 proteins may, however, interrupt the association between the insulin receptor and IRS and regulate insulin sensitivity. Mutations in IRS-1 and IRS-2 are associated with increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes.
Subjects: Chemistry — Medicine and Health.