See also communication models; interaction-oriented communication.
1. Generally, a conceptualization of communication as a two-way, cyclical process (including feedback) in contrast to the sender-oriented asymmetry and unidirectionality of linear models, Schramm's 1954 model, emphasizing the active interpretation of meaning being the most well-known example. See also encoding/decoding model; meaning-oriented communication; compare transmission models.
2. More specifically, conceptualizations of communication as sharing, exchanging, or negotiating meanings through interaction in situational contexts (see also reciprocity; symbolic interactionism). Various types of situations are associated with normative functions or purposes: see communicative functions; communicative purposes. Compare communication game; relational model.