1. A dynamic and reciprocal communicative relationship between a user and a computerized media device where each new action is contingent on a previous action. When taken to be a property of a medium, interactivity measures the degree to which users can influence and vary form and/or content. This is conceptualized by the American HCI researcher Brenda Laurel (b.1950) according to the frequency, range, and significance of the choices that the medium offers to the user. Critics of this position argue that since the computer is not an active participant in the communication process, only interpersonal communication can be truly interactive.
2. Any communication between two or more individuals that is dynamically shaped by the participants of the exchange (see also interaction). When taken as a property of the communication process, interactivity is characterized as being active, intentional, and occurring only in conditions where the roles of sender and receiver are fully interchangeable. Examples include a face-to-face meeting, a telephone conversation, and an SMS text message exchange. Critics of this position argue that it is overly reliant on a linear, transmission model of communication, whereas interactive environments are virtual spaces in which a person can be both the sender and receiver of information because their actions define their experience of the medium.
3. In broadcast media, a limited potential for programme content to be dynamically shaped by feedback from viewers/listeners in forms which include audience participation, telephone calls, emails, and text messages. Digital television has extended the possibilities for interactive broadcasting: see interactive television.