A distortion within a material, such as glacier ice: individual ice crystals react to stress by elongating, or by melting and recrystallizing, and ice may also shear along separate shear planes; see Hambrey et al. (2005) J. Geophys. Res. 110, F01006 and Mair et al. (2001) ESPL. 23. See Lewkovicz and Harries (2005) Geomorph. 69, 1–4 on internal deformation in permafrost.
Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.